Eco-Design in Current Estonian Education and Industry
Estonian Academy of Arts (Estonia)
Shandong University (China)
爱沙尼亚位于波罗的海地区，地处欧洲北部与芬兰，俄罗斯相邻。自从爱沙尼亚再次独立以来，社会稳定，经济迅速发展，IT业发达，所有这些为生态设计的发展提供了良好的条件。生态设计在爱沙尼亚有三种驱动力量：法律要求，市场需求，和生产成本。工业和教育部门都适时引入生态设计理念来提升可持续发展环境以及确保爱沙尼亚产品质量和产品出口的增长。爱沙尼亚出台了一些政策直接或间接的支持生态设计在爱的发展，同时欧盟的EuP指令也对其产生了法令效应。爱沙尼亚的设计教育主要在爱沙尼亚艺术学院(Estonian Academy of Arts), 产品设计系比较重视生态设计课程在设计教学中的作用，尤其是自从07年9月份日本教授Masayo Ave出任系主任以来。设计系的学生大多了解生态设计的基本知识，如生态材料，生态技术和生态策略，同时他们也清楚设计师对于生态设计的作用。爱沙尼亚的工业部门有食品加工，木材加工，机械设备制造，轻工业和能源工业等。尽管同德国和意大利等国相比，爱沙尼亚工业中生态设计的水平相对较低，但是已经导入了生态设计的理念，并相应运用了生态设计的一些方式方法。
Eco-Design, Product design, Estonian Academy of Arts, EuP Directive,
Since Estonia regained its independence, its economy has been developing fast. The society is stable, and there is a very well developed IT industry. All this factors created good environment for the development of Eco-Design. The industry and education system need to improve Eco-design as a tool to be used to enhance the environmental performance of products in Estonia in order to further ensure the export growth and to improve product quality. Based on the existing literature material and published information the paper researched and analyzed Eco-Design in the present situation of the Estonian industrial enterprises and college level education. The author made sure to interview and consult related professionals in the field as well. The aim of the study is to gather and evaluate present situation in eco-design and product development in Estonia in order to identify promising strategies for the eco-design concept and to provide advantageous experience and feasibility study on Eco-Design in Estonia.
About Estonia and Estonian economy
Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti or Eesti Vabariik) is a country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region. It is bordered to the north by Finland across the Gulf of Finland, to the west by Sweden, to the south by Latvia, and to the east by the Russian Federation. The territory of Estonia covers 45,227 km² and is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Estonia regained its independence on 20 August 1991. It has since embarked on a rapid program of social and economic reform. Today, the country has gained notoriety for its economic freedom, its adaptation of new technologies, and as one of the world's fastest growing economies.
Estonia is a well-developed networked society. Most of the workplaces in public administration are equipped with computers, the government itself being one of the first in the world to develop a functioning e-government system. Estonians spend 5% of their incoming on telecommunication services (3% on IT) every month, which is among the highest in the world in relative terms. Considering Estonian GDP per capita is definitely a remarkable figure.
On regaining independence in August 1991, Estonia was a relatively backward country technologically. State infrastructure (in situations and people) was absent and had to be built up from scratch, monetary reform in 1992 established the stable currency. Heavy industry machinery and infrastructure established during the Soviet era found almost no use after the privatization and technological upgrading by the new owners. The access to Russian market was increasingly more difficult due to the politically set trade barriers by the Russian Federation, and the quality of Estonian products was not good enough to compete in the Western markets.
In spite of these unfavorable conditions Estonian industrial structure started to depart form the factor-driven stage into the investment